Ketogenic diet or ketodiet
What is the ketogenic diet?
First, let's be clear that the word "diet" is used to discuss eating styles, not weight loss.
The ketogenic diet is very different from the omnivorous diet that most people eat. The difference is related to the amount of macronutrients eaten during the day.
Basically, a so-called "normal" diet should contain 40-50% carbohydrates, 30-35% lipids and 10-15% protein.
A ketogenic diet is 70% lipids, 20-25% protein and 5-10% carbohydrates.
Why reduce carbohydrates?
A significant reduction in the amount of dietary carbohydrate in the body will lead to ketosis.
In ketosis, the body mainly uses lipids for energy and ketones - lipid metabolites - accumulate in the body. This happens when the body no longer has sufficient reserves of carbohydrates, including glucose, for energy production.
When the body no longer has them, it becomes increasingly efficient at using fat as a source of energy after a few days.
Which foods should I eat on a ketogenic diet?
Many foods, such as bread or pasta, should only be eaten once in a while to reduce macronutrients, but not every day, but this does not mean that the ketogenic diet prevents you from enjoying your food.
This diet consists mainly of fatty foods, which give the body a very good feeling of satiety, so the diet should include oily fish, meat, eggs, oil seeds, avocados, vegetables, oils, cheese, etc.
Fruit can be eaten occasionally, but only a little, as it is high in sugar.
Achievements in sport
Following a ketogenic diet for at least 31 days can improve the composition of your body tissue - you will have less fat and more muscle mass.
In a study of trained military personnel, peak oxygen consumption (VO2max) increase, possibly due to a decrease in body fat.
In addition, such a diet can promote lipid oxidation, allowing them to be used during exercise. Thus, the improvement in athletic performance is due to the replacement of this key substrate during intense exercise.
This diet, combined with appropriate training, improves a person's aerobic and anaerobic performance.
Ketodiene has been used for epilepsy for a century. The diet is recognised as a treatment in 45 countries.
Over time, the ketogenic diet has been slightly modified, of course maintaining a high ratio of fat to carbohydrate intake, to adapt it to the lifestyle of any patient.
The mechanisms underlying the effects of diet in this disease are complex and not yet fully understood. It is possible that diet has an effect because it ensures stable blood glucose concentrations and ketones can affect neuronal function and nerve impulse transmission.
The impact of diet on cancer treatment is increasingly being taken into account.
There have been pre-clinical and clinical studies on the effects of ketogenic diets on various cancers. Some studies have observed a slowing of cancer cell development and a reduction in tumours.
The effectiveness of a ketogenic diet is greater or less depending on the form of cancer.
This means that in the future, the ketogenic diet may become part of the treatment for some cancers in order to improve them.
The ketogenic diet essentially excludes essential macronutrients from the diet and can therefore lead to nutritional imbalances and deficiencies of various substances.
It must be taken seriously, with regular monitoring to ensure that human health is not put at risk.
As it does not include carbohydrates, it can cause significant weakness and headaches in the beginning, before a person's metabolism has adjusted, and as it is a restrictive diet, it is difficult to notice in the long term.
It is not even recommended for long-term adherence, as the harmful effects can lead to cardiovascular disease, but scientists disagree. In addition, the restrictions associated with this style of eating can also lead to eating disorders.
- Richard A. Lafoutain. (2019) Extended Ketogenic Diet and Physical Training Intervention in Military Personnel. Military Medicine.
- Fionn T. McSwiney and al. (2017) Keto-adaptation enhances exercise performance and body composition responses to training in endurance athletes. Metabolism Journal.
- Letícia Pereira de Brito Sampaio. (2016) Ketogenic diet for epilepsy treatment Dieta cetogênica para o tratamento da epilepsia. Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria.
- Hae-Yun Chung and al. (2017) Rationale, Feasibility and Acceptability of Ketogenic Diet for Cancer Treatment. Journal of cancer prevention.